Perhaps it will never be possible to reconstruct the drama experienced in the last years of his life by Charles V, whose energies seemed to slowly run out and who, gradually yielding his dominions to his brother and son Philip, stripped himself even before dying of his states. and withdrew from political life, which had nevertheless been the only real purpose of his existence. As early as 1552 to his contemporaries his personal empire seemed close to breaking up; and to Prince Philip she addressed a lively, heartfelt, incessant prayer that he would take the reins of the government and save what was possible from the imminent shipwreck. Then also Charles V had to begin to have a clear perception of the next collapse of the whole world that he had created or defended with an energy that is miraculous; or by one’s own will, not intending to recognize that he was defeated in the face of a Europe that he had often dominated, or, as has also been said, by imposition of his son, he left the arduous task of liquidating his politics to others; and, to make it possible, a last sacrifice and very painful for him, because he had hoped to pass on all his states to his son, he agreed to divide them: giving Philip the Spanish, Italian and Flemish dominions, as well as the American colonies, and his brother the dominions inheritance of the House of Austria. But this partition, even if of immediate practical utility, was not only a compromise that was anything but happy between the two tendencies that his advisers had pointed out to him in vain, because it united Flemish dominions with Italian-Spanish dominions and thus renewed the previous dangerous confusions. of interest,
The separation of the two crowns, the imperial from the Spanish, immediately facilitated the task of Philip II (1556-98), freeing him from the great German dispute. The new sovereign, eager to return to the central nucleus of his own state, from which alarming news reached him because the country was tired of wars and because the Reformation had begun to make proselytes, was able to close the still open conflict with the France. The arms of the Duke of Alba won over the troops of Pope Paul IV, who wanted to remove the kingdom of Naples from the Habsburgs, and also those of Guise; fortunate Spanish military actions, especially the battle of San Quintino, in which the military genius of Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia shone and which almost turned into an irreparable route for the French army, persuaded Henry II to come to an agreement; the peace stipulated in Cateau-Cambrésis, confirming to the Habsburg the possession of Flanders and a large part of Italy (the kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, the duchy of Milan, the state of dominance over Europe (1559). And then Philip II was able to return to his homeland, which had become the true center of his great state not only for the force of events, but again for the will of the monarch, who was and felt himself, and was considered by all to be profoundly Castilian. From Spain he no longer had to leave. the Duchy of Milan, the state of the Presidiums), ensured Spain domination over Europe (1559). And then Philip II was able to return to his homeland, which had become the true center of his great state not only for the force of events, but again for the will of the monarch, who was and felt himself, and was considered by all to be profoundly Castilian. From Spain he no longer had to leave. the Duchy of Milan, the state of the Presidiums), ensured Spain domination over Europe (1559). And then Philip II was able to return to his homeland, which had become the true center of his great state not only for the force of events, but again for the will of the monarch, who was and felt himself, and was considered by all to be profoundly Castilian. From Spain he no longer had to leave.
According to SUNGLASSESTRACKER, Marvelous temperament as a worker, so that in his reign nothing was ever done without his being informed, he directed the life of the state in all its manifestations, not excluding the intellectual ones, in which he personally took part. Thus the most rigid absolutism was established in Spain. Hostile to all the regionalisms and to all the traditional freedoms that his subjects enjoyed for centuries and that even the Catholic kings and Charles V had respected, because they removed unity from the monarchy and limited its power, he wanted Spain to have a single and central capital., and he chose Madrid, a city of very little importance until then, but which in his eyes had the great merit of being in the heart of the peninsula and of not having any tradition or privilege of regional state capital; ended up destroying the caste privileges of the nobility and the clergy; he dominated Castile with an iron hand, removing almost all power from his Cortes and limiting administrative autonomy; and then, taking advantage of the revolt that broke out in Aragon, which arose in defense of Antonio Pérez, but especially of hisfueros, rudely reformed the Aragonese legislation in the Cortes of Tarragona (1592), where it was decided that the justicia mayorit would have been of royal appointment and the monarch was recognized the right to designate a foreigner as viceroy. With an overly simplistic vision of religious revolutions, firmly convinced “that changes in religion never occur without changes in the order of the state at the same time and without the poor, the idle, the vagabonds taking advantage of the pretext to plunder the wealth of the rich. “, widened the powers of the Inquisition tribunal and destroyed converts to the Reformation in Spain to the last.