Category Archives: Culture

Switzerland Brief Information

Geographical position The Swiss Confederation (lat. Confederatio Helvetica or CH) is located in the center of Europe, covers an area of ​​41,284 km², inhabited by 7.7 million people, includes 20 cantons and 6 half-cantons, and borders on five countries: in the north – with Germany, in the east – with Liechtenstein and Austria, in the… Read More »

Russian Literature During the 18th Century

The Western Influence The period of Peter I the Great marks a radical turning point in literature as well as in Russian history, but in literature its scope will only become visible in the following period. On the death of Peter I, the cultural gap between the Russia and the West, still abysmal when he… Read More »

Russia – From Yeltsin to Putin

The text of the new Constitution, promoted by President Yeltsin, was signed on November 8, 1993 and submitted to a referendum for popular approval on December 12 of the same year. The charter made Russia a highly centralized presidential republic, with the conferral of broad powers on the president, including the possibility of dissolving Parliament… Read More »

Russia Cinematography

A few months after its first appearance at the Grand Café in Paris, the Lumière brothers’ cinema made its entrance into the capital of the Russian Empire, sowing the same amazed bewilderment it had produced in the French city. It was May 4, 1896, and with the živye kartiny (living pictures) the opening of the… Read More »

Russia During the Reign of Alexander III

Alexander III, already at the time when he was hereditary prince, gathered around himself the most retrograde elements of the aristocracy and the most reactionary among the intellectuals. While some of his advisers and ministers (in the forefront Loris-Melikov) wanted to continue the policy of severe repression of revolutionary activity, not separated, however, by some… Read More »

Italy Incomes, Productivity, Prices and Investments

From 1951 onwards, the evolution of the Italian economy was characterized, among other things, by a strong increase in salaries per employee, which had its most pronounced peaks in the two-year period 1963-64 and in the following years to 1969. The trend in compensation of employees from 1951 to 1973, as well as the relationships… Read More »

Spain Literature Part II

In this sense, the narrative and, to a lesser extent, the theater also offer numerous and different confirmations. Indeed, it can be said that compared to poetry they act as a more immediate point of reference for a critical clarification, given the extreme eloquence of the contents that are proposed. Many uncertainties were already at… Read More »

Spain Literature Part I

On the Spanish literature of the years following the civil war and, subsequently, the immediate postwar period in Europe, the immobility of the internal situation always had a decisive weight: whoever was induced to decrease its importance in view of an autonomous consideration of the values ​​of narrative and poetry, would not only fall into… Read More »

Poland Literature Part VII

Although in the last two decades before the war, Polish literature had repeatedly proclaimed its independence from any tendentiousness or purpose that was not inherent in itself, yet it has always, and inevitably, remained somewhat linked to the fundamental problem of all forces. national: freedom and unity of the fatherland. Indeed, up to 1830, literature… Read More »

Poland Literature Part VI

The first impetus for the renewal of poetry also this time comes from abroad, and we gladly refer to the French Baudelaire, Verlaine and Mallarmé and, among the Italians, to D’Annunzio. But the young Polish poets also had two unusually “modern” models in their tradition: Słowacki and Norwid. It is only now that Słowacki is… Read More »