Category Archives: Culture

Spain Literature Part I

On the Spanish literature of the years following the civil war and, subsequently, the immediate postwar period in Europe, the immobility of the internal situation always had a decisive weight: whoever was induced to decrease its importance in view of an autonomous consideration of the values ​​of narrative and poetry, would not only fall into… Read More »

Poland Literature Part VII

Although in the last two decades before the war, Polish literature had repeatedly proclaimed its independence from any tendentiousness or purpose that was not inherent in itself, yet it has always, and inevitably, remained somewhat linked to the fundamental problem of all forces. national: freedom and unity of the fatherland. Indeed, up to 1830, literature… Read More »

Poland Literature Part VI

The first impetus for the renewal of poetry also this time comes from abroad, and we gladly refer to the French Baudelaire, Verlaine and Mallarmé and, among the Italians, to D’Annunzio. But the young Polish poets also had two unusually “modern” models in their tradition: Słowacki and Norwid. It is only now that Słowacki is… Read More »

Poland Literature Part V

In the double essence – on the one hand the anguished relationship between individual freedom and national freedom, and the religious sublimation of both in the universe; on the other hand, the messianistic conception of the Polish nation and its mission in the world – Polish romanticism is profoundly autochthonous, because it is due to… Read More »

Poland Literature Part IV

The reign of the two Saxons is the period of the greatest chaos of Polish literature: not a single important work was published under the reign of Augustus II; while during August III’s 28 years of misrule, literary history, apart from the scholastic-Jesuit comedies of Franciszek Bohomolec (1720-84), who among other things owes much to… Read More »

Poland Literature Part III

In any case, the diffusion by means of the press, soon imported into Poland, of Polish works, is due to the printers, “Polonicati Germani”, of Krakow;Hortulus animae – Raj duszny (1514) is the first Polish printed book. How much part is due to the bourgeoisie in the late compilation in Poland of various types of… Read More »

Poland Literature Part II

According to BAGLIB, the sec. XV instead marks a vigorous cultural progress. Already at the time of Casimir the Great, Poland had entered into closer relations with the West: Polish schoolchildren had attended Italian universities and in 1364 the University of Krakow was founded, which after a short period of hibernation was renewed by Queen… Read More »

Poland Literature Part I

Latin and Polish, and indeed, in its origins, more Latin than Polish, is the literary culture of the Piasti and Jagellonids in Poland. Then, at the time of King Báthory and the Wasa, Latin, despite its greater diffusion, slowly gave way to Polish: in the first half of the century. XVII shines once again with… Read More »

Spain History – The Imperialism of the Habsburgs Part VII

Then the gravity of the situation began to be felt in the dominions of the king of Spain. The expulsion from the peninsula of the Moriscos, already persecuted for jealousy and rapacity decreed with a mad gesture by the government of Philip III (1609), had deprived Spain of half a million skilled farmers, made entire… Read More »

Spain History – The Imperialism of the Habsburgs Part VI

At the same time he moved against Elizabeth, who, in contrast to the religious program of the enemy, she had elevated herself as a supporter of all the Protestants of Europe, helped the Huguenots and insurgents of the Netherlands and had sown the seas of daring pirates, first of all the Drake, to annihilate the… Read More »