Greek art, in the sense of classical archeology term for the art of the Greeks from the 11th to the 1st century BC. Chr.
After the fall of the Mycenaean culture (around 1200), the simplest forms of Mycenaean vessel shapes were erased (sub-Mycenaean ceramics), around 1050 a stylistic renewal began: the shapes were more articulated, rulers and compasses were used for decorative circles, decorative semicircles and circumferential ribbons (protogeometric Ceramic, 1050-900). Since 900 the meander has developed into the leading form in ceramics, small sculptures (especially votive figures) made of clay and bronze as well as devices made of iron and bronze appeared (geometric art, 900–700). Around 800 the beginning of the temple construction and the construction of the agora are set as a meeting place. With the Daedal plastic (Daedal) began the development of large-scale sculpture; Monumental sculpture and architecture, building sculpture and figurative vase painting were fully developed in the Archaic period (7th – 6th centuries BC). After the early classical Strict Style, the 5th century brought the first and the 4th century the second flowering of classical art. After the death of Alexander the Great, it passed into Hellenistic art (end of the 4th – 1st century BC), which extended far beyond the original area to the entire Hellenistic world and beyond, and in some cases even longer was handed down.
Geometric Art (900-700 BC)
The designation geometric art goes back to the ornamentation of ceramics: Meander, triangle, rhombus, circle and swastika are arranged in horizontal stripes, an expression of a mathematical-orderly style will. The early Geometric vessels (900–850) are often completely covered with a black, glossy coating, from which only a few narrow ornamental strips (hook and crenellated meanders) are left out. Figures have appeared in peripheral areas since the 9th century. In the Middle Geometric phase (850–760 BC), dense ornamental friezes cover the more differentiated vessel shapes, with animal and human friezes in between. Burial ceremonies (death lamentation, warriors and chariots), also ship battles, etc. are depicted. In the late Geometric period (760–700 BC) the pictorial scenes pushed the ornamental strips to the edge.
The same geometric principles of style are followed by plate brooches and golden ribbons as well as small sculptures made of metal or clay. The latter were used to decorate various devices (e.g. tripods) and as votive offerings. Thousands of them were found in the sanctuaries, e.g. B. in Olympia (including a charioteer in a car body, around 750–730, Berlin, Antikensammlung); The Berlin stallion (around 730), probably made in Corinth, is particularly well known. It shows the typical swelling and pointed forms of the late Geometric style. Since around 720 images of the Near East (animals and mythical creatures) have been included (orientalizing style).
According to dentistrymyth, Heraklion, modern Greek Heraklion, is the capital of the administrative region of Crete, Greece, on the north coast of the island of Crete, with (2011) 140 700 residents the largest city in Crete.
Greek Orthodox Bishopric; Research Center of Crete (part of the University of Crete; founded 1983), FH, Archaeological Museum (most important museum of Minoan and Cretan-Mycenaean finds) and others. Museums. Heraklion is the economic center of an extensive agricultural area; Canning, clothing, metal, chemical industries; major tourism; Port, airport.
The former Venetian fort at the old port with ship houses and arsenals was built in 1523-40 on the site of previous Venetian buildings. In the 16th and 17th centuries, huge fortification walls with bastions, porches and (originally eight) gates, including the Kainurgia Gate (1567–87), based on plans by M. Sanmicheli. In the former St. Mark’s Church (Hagios Markos; 1239, renewed several times) v. a. Copies of Byzantine frescoes shown from the island, in the Hagia Aikaterini (1555) is the Icon Museum of the Cretan School of Painting (including M. Damaskinos). The small church of Hagios Minas, built in the 16th century in place of a building from the Byzantine era, was renovated in 1735–45. The former Venetian armory (17th century) is now the town hall, the Venetian loggia (1626–28) was destroyed in 1941 and has been restored; the Morosini Fountain (1628) has four lions from the 14th century and numerous mythological figures; the Bembob Fountain includes a Roman relief from Crete.
A port of Knossos since Minoan times, the place was named Heraklion by the Greeks (because, according to the myth, Herakles went ashore here to catch the Cretan bull) and was after the conquest of Crete by the Arabs (824 AD.) re-established as Chandak. In 961 it came to Byzantium (Chandax), in 1204 to the Venetians, who expanded the city into a fortress of Candia; until the Ottoman conquest (1669) seat of the Venetian governor on Crete, which was now also mostly called Candia. In the Ottoman period (until 1913) the city was, from the Greeks, megalokastron called, inhabited almost exclusively by Turks and Jews. In 1923 around 8,000 Greeks from Asia Minor were settled here.