Greece Classical Arts (490/480-330/320 BC) Part I

By | August 29, 2021


In classical architecture, the forms and proportions of the temple v. a. characterized by a slimmer striving. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia (470-460), the Parthenon (447-432), the Temple of Poseidon at Sunion (2nd half of the 5th century), the Temple of Hera at Paestum (around 450), the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens were built as temples in Doric order (around 440) and the Temple of Apollo at Bassai (around 430). In the 4th century the Doric style for temple buildings became rare (Tegea, Nemea). The now preferred design was the rotunda (Tholos): Delphi, Epidauros, Olympia. The Attic Classics of the 5th century developed the richer Attic-Ionic capital shape (on the small ornate buildings of the Acropolis such as Erechtheion, the Temple of Nikes and on the small Doric Temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus, around 390), furthermore the frieze band adorned with sculptures under the protruding cornice (geison). Examples of the 4th century BC BC a. Ionic architecture flourishing in the east is the new Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (around 350), the tomb of Mausolos of Halicarnassus (around 350) and v. a. the Temple of Athena at Priene (consecratedby Alexander the Great in334). The Corinthian capital was probably built at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Invented: The volutes of the Ionic chapter were further developed and surrounded with acanthus leaves. In the course of the 4th century, the Corinthian order first prevailed in the interior and then also in the exterior.

In classical architecture, as in archaic times, the temple was understood as an independent individual structure and three-dimensional body. The curvature of the horizontal elements, the entasis and the inward inclination of the columns unify the structure, in which the structure of the outer sides was of particular interest. Nevertheless, the first attempts were made to create an architectural complex (Propylaea of ​​the Athens Acropolis), just as palaces, high schools and inns at sanctuaries were increasingly arranged around inner courtyards. A new type of building is emerging with large, almost square rooms with many columns inside, e.g. B. the Telesterion in Eleusis (around 440), the Thersilleion in Megalopolis (around 360) and the Odeion in Athens. Stone theaters have been an extensive construction project since the 4th century. mostly with the inclusion of a mountain slope for the rows of seats; the round orchestra is flanked by entrances (Parodoi) and closed off by the stage (Skene). Columned halls of the Doric and Ionic order increasingly adorned markets and sanctuaries.


According to extrareference, the early Classics of the 5th century BC Chr. Is called the strict style (490 / 80–450). The time of the Persian Wars (Battle of Marathon 490, von Salamis 480) had profound effects on art: In sculpture, the formulaic nature of the archaic was broken. The human body in its movement was recorded in terms of anatomy and function and the targeted action was discussed. The decisive innovation was the development of the ponderation (differentiation between standing and free leg). Changes in intellectual culture, politics and society also had a great influence on the visual design, so that the characters speak a greater liveliness and a changed ethos. The fighting Aeginetes (Aegina) mark the end of the 6th century. The gable sculptures and metopes of Olympia, which combine clear profile and front views with lifelike expression, exude the calm and strength of the strict style. The Critiosknabe (around 480; Acropolis Museum) comes from the Acropolis of Athens, a figure of great concentration built on a standing and free leg. The charioteer of Delphi (around 475) and the god from the sea from Cape Artemision (around 460) are important examples of the ore foundry art of the early classical period. The terracotta group from Olympia, “Zeus abducts Ganymede” (around 470), speaks of a new, more direct relationship to God. Most of the works of the great classics have only survived as copies from Roman times, large numbers from the 1st century BC. Until the 3rd century AD. With their help, together with the remains of the building sculpture and the numerous grave and consecration reliefs and figures, the art history of the two classical centuries must be reconstructed. The tyrannicide group Harmodios and Aristogeiton (Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale) is a marble copy after the lost bronze group of Kritios and Nesiotes (477/76), the Omphalosapollon a marble copy of the 2nd century AD based on a bronze original (around 470-460; Athens, National Archaeological Museum), the Tiberapollon (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano) and the Kassel Apollo are marble copies of the 1st century AD 3rd century AD after masterpieces of the strict style, perhaps by Phidias (between 460 and 450).

Greece Classical Arts


In the 5th century BC The archaic tradition was continued in the bronze casting (Apollonia in Thrace). In the 4th century the terracotta figures (Tanagra) predominated. Glyptic art reached its peak in the 5th century. Coin minting produced not only utility coins but also important works of art.