Modern Greek language, term for two forms of language in Greece and Cyprus: the Dimotiki (“popular language”), which represents an organic development of the Greek language over the millennia, and the purist language Katharevusa, the artificial form of a learned, archaic Greek.
According to ehealthfacts, Greek language dualism began in the time of Alexander the Great after the development of the Koine, the common lingua franca of Hellenism, with the distinction between spoken and written Greek. The scholars regarded the koine as a vulgar form of language and tried to create a classical Attic (Atticism). This attitude persisted during the Byzantine and Turkish eras as well as in the newly established Greek state. Since the Cretan literature of the 15th to 17th centuries, the vernacular became literary and gained recognition as the general written Greek language in literature and culture in the 20th century, while Katharevusa asserted itself as the official language and predominated in the scientific field. The following of the two language forms was divided into two camps. Artist, Writers and supporters of progressive tendencies stood up for the Dimotiki, so that the language problem also took on a political character. The educational plans of dictatorial regimes were repeatedly changed in favor of Katharevusa. In 1975 linguistic dualism was abolished by a parliamentary resolution; Since then, Dimotiki has also been recognized as an official and scientific language beyond the cultural field.
The pronunciation of both forms of language, which differs from the common Erasmic pronunciation of ancient Greek (etazism) in Germany, originated in the last centuries BC. BC (Greek language, Greek writing). Already in the Koine, vowels and diphthongs were pronounced as much as possible in today’s Greek (Itazism). In 1982 the one accent system was introduced; This means that the stressed syllable is marked with an acute accent in polysyllabic words and no longer with a grave accent or circumflex. At the same time, Spiritus asper and Spiritus lenis were dropped at the beginning of the word. In the declination the dative has disappeared; it is replaced by prepositional expressions. The declination systems have been reduced by a few schemes, the verb has lost the infinitive and optative. The syntax is simplified in the sense of a strongly analytical sentence structure.
The dialects that emerged in Byzantine times in various regions of Greece and Asia Minor are based on v. a. on the Koine of the Hellenistic period.
Larissa, Larisa, capital of the administrative region of Thessaly, Greece, on Pinios, (2011) 144 700 residents.
Seat of a Greek Orthodox metropolitan; FH; Food, textile, clothing industry, agricultural machinery, building materials industry, sugar factory, cardboard and paper manufacture, commercial center, airport, train and motorway Athens-Thessaloniki, the port of Larisa is Volos.
Small remains of the former acropolis (classical temple, Hellenistic theater), the v. a. near the landmark of Larisa, a minaret converted into a clock tower, as well as the metropolitan church and the archbishop’s palace, bear witness to the city’s heyday in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. BC, which also played a role among the Macedonians (344 BC) and especially among the Romans (196 BC) and Byzantines (fortress). The city walls were renewed by Justinian I in the 6th century; the Turkish brick wall (after 1389), which was laid down in 1881, probably followed the course of the outer ancient wall. In the archaeological museum there are numerous small finds from Larisa and the surrounding area since prehistoric times. – Krannon is nearby.
The 26 m high hill of Larisa at the river crossing has been inhabited since the Neolithic; the ruling dynasty of the Aleuads is presumably attested by an early consecration gift in Delphi (middle of the 6th century BC).
Patras, capital of the administrative region of Western Greece, on the Peloponnese on the Gulf of Patras (western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth), (2011) 167 400 residents.
Patras is the Orthodox Archbishopric. The city has a university (founded in 1964), technical colleges and an institute for industrial systems. The wineries, food, clothing, tire, building materials and machine industries are economically important. Many IT companies have settled in the Patras Science Park. Patras is an export port for agricultural products. There are ferry connections among others. with Ancona and Brindisi in Italy. In 2004 the Rion-Antirion Bridge over the Gulf of Corinth was inaugurated near Patras. The city is connected to Athens by rail and motorway.
In 2006 Patras was the European Capital of Culture. The apostle Andrew is said to have been crucified in the Greek Orthodox Church of Hagios Andreas (1836). There is a Franconian-Venetian castle in the upper town.
From Patrai, which belonged to the twelve ancient cities of the Achaia region, went in 281/280 BC. The impetus for the re-establishment of the Achaean League. 14 BC It was raised to a Roman colony (Colonia Augusta Aroe Patrensis) by Augustusand enlarged by incorporations. According to legend, one of the first Greek Christian communities was established here by the apostle Andrew. At the beginning of the 13th century, Patras became part of the Principality of Achaia (Morea), and since the 15th century it has been under the changing rule of the Venetians and Turks. The ancient city was in the area of today’s Upper Town. After the destruction of the old city by the Turks in 1821 under the leadership of the Archbishop of Patras, Germanos, started the struggle for freedom, the modern city was built in 1828.