While in the Principality there are still few Latin inscriptions to testify to the presence, for a certain period, of the Roman Empire, of the Middle Ages, however, there is little and fragmentary news. We only know that in the 11th century the inhabitants of the above Turbia founded the Church of Santa Maria in the town, later joined to that of San Donato; and around these two churches the first groups of populations were grouped. See Countryaah for population and country facts about Monaco. Genoa boasted its dominion over it, which, in defense of the whole territory, built a castle in 1215 and another was built at the mouth of the port. In 1262 this Genoese possession was recognized by Carlo d’Angiò.
When in Italy, around 1297, there were disputes between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Franceschino Grimaldi, called Malizia, exponent of the family who owned many fiefs on the Ligurian Riviera, took possession of this Genoese domain to create naval support and a point of defense for the Guelphs. And from that moment the history of the Principality was identified with that of the Grimaldi family.
With the alternation of the parties in Genoa there was also that of the possession of the Principality, until in 1395, taken away in Genoa, began a real ballet of lords and until 1419, when then Monaco returned definitively to the Grimaldi, of the Carlo branch the great.
The small state was looked upon with desire by all the powerful neighboring states, but asked for the protection of Genoa and finally, under the skilful policy of Lamberto, of the branch of Antibo, who had married the granddaughter of Prince Giovanni, the principality was officially recognized independent.
Towards the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the eleventh, Monaco leaned entirely on France. In 1505, under Prince Luciano, relations with France weakened and Genoa, with the intent to occupy the whole Riviera and eliminate the noble family, besieged, but in vain, the country. In 1509 Luciano, forced to endure the sovereignty of France with a treaty, turned to Spain; entered into a navigation agreement with Ferdinand the Catholic and France in 1512 had to admit the full independence of the principality which, for over a century, remained in the orbit of Spanish politics.
In the mid-sixteenth century, ruler Honored I, Monaco had to defend himself from Turkish raids. In 1633 Honored II assumed, first, the title of Prince and totally changed the orientation of the principality’s policy, returning to the French sphere. Following long negotiations with Cardinal Richelieu, with the Treaty of Peronne of September 14, 1641, the following was established:
– the presence of a garrison in Monaco;
– the sovereignty of the Grimaldi over Menton and Roccabruna, in place of the fiefs lost with Spain;
– the assignment of the tiutolo di Duchi di Valentinois, with elevation to Pari di Francia –
And on September 17 with a stroke of hand Monaco passed under the French Protectorate and its principles dealt only with the internal affairs of the country; all the rest was in the hands of the French crown.
Louis XIV later recognized the Savoy sovereignty over Menton and Roccabruna. The principality continued to live with this policy and ran a serious danger only when, with the wars of succession in Austria, its neutrality was not respected