As with Lysippus the Hellenistic sculpture, so with Apelles the Hellenistic painting started. However, almost all the originals (panel and wall paintings) have been lost, and painted steles, vases (Centuripe, Sicily) and glass vessels (finds from Bescham) are also rare. The precious mosaic pictures of Dioscorides of Samos with scenes of comedies and musicians and also various wall paintings by Boscoreale (Interiors with portraits of the Macedonian rulers) are probably Hellenistic works from the 2nd third of the 3rd century BC. Chr. Again. From the 2nd century z. B. the mosaic from the House of Masks (Delos), from the end of the 2nd century two Pompeian mosaics with marine animals (including the House of the Faun). In Hellenistic painting, the interplay of light and shadow plays a major role as a plasticity and space-creating element. In the 2nd century, genre-like scenes and still lifes were added to portraits and depictions of historical, mythological and literary material, followed by the landscape as an overall composition. The pictorial genre was probably created in Alexandria and flourished for a long time in the Hellenistic province of Italy. In the early 1st In the 16th century, the artificial landscape scenes from Boscotrecase (today Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale; probably based on a Hellenistic original from the late 2nd century) were created, around 80 the mosaics of the Fortuna shrine of Praeneste (Palestrina) with Nile scenes created by Alexandrian mosaicists (later renewed several times), around 50/40 the frescoes with the story of Odysseus from a house on the Esquiline in Rome (Vatican collections). The Mystery Villa of Pompeii and the around 50/40 the frescoes with the story of Odysseus from a house on the Esquiline in Rome (Vatican collections). The Mystery Villa of Pompeii and the around 50/40 the frescoes with the story of Odysseus from a house on the Esquiline in Rome (Vatican collections). The Mystery Villa of Pompeii and the Aldobrandine wedding; they show a new revival of large-figured painting.
The most famous panel painter was Timomachus of Byzantium (middle of the 1st century BC), who briefly renewed classical figure painting. Since the 2nd half of the 1st century BC Roman art increasingly gained its own profile.
Gems and coins show excellent portraits. The pottery includes vessels pressed from molds with relief representations (Megarian cups).
While the Romans directly linked to Hellenistic architecture (creation of large building ensembles), they apparently experienced the other art genres as already historical phenomena, whose revival they were concerned with (Augustan art). The abundance of Roman copies of classical and Hellenistic works allows conclusions to be drawn about the high esteem and appropriation of Greek art in the Roman public and in Roman art; After the end of the Roman Empire, Byzantine art was repeatedly based on Greek art. The role model and identification character of Greek art has not yet died out even today. According to ehistorylib, the appropriation of Greek art in modern times began via derived Roman art in the Renaissance. The 18th century discovered the Greek core of ancient art (J. J. Winckelmann); this and an expanded knowledge of monuments led to European classicism. The philosophical aesthetic was largely based on Greek art (G. E. Lessing, G. WF Hegel). While the 19th century particularly preferred the classical centuries, the art of the 1st half of the 20th century B.C. a. stimulate from archaic works.
Athens, capital and by far the largest city of Greece, with (2011) 664,000 residents (Greater Athens with Piraeus: around 3.8 million residents).
The city is located 5 km from the Aegean Sea (Saronic Gulf) and is connected to it by the port of Piraeus. Athens is the country’s cultural hub with universities, colleges, scientific (archaeological) institutes and museums. The ancient monuments (especially on the Acropolis) are attractions for countless tourists. Commerce, banks, shipping companies and industry determine the economic life of the city in addition to tourism.
History: Athens emerged as a settlement around the 156 m high castle hill, the Acropolis. In ancient times it had its heyday as a state (which comprised the whole of Attica) and the supremacy of Greece in the 5th century BC. Under Pericles. The city’s political decline began after the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC). It only lost its importance as the center of intellectual life after the academy was closed (529 AD).
After an eventful history under foreign rulers (Romans, Byzantines, Franks, Turks), Athens became the capital of the newly created Kingdom of Greece in 1834. The 2004 Summer Olympics took place in Athens.