Gibraltar is a peninsula in southwestern Europe. From the south it is washed by the Strait of Gibraltar, which connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, and from the north it borders on Spain. The area of the peninsula is 6.5 km2. The landscape is dominated by limestone cliffs, dotted with numerous tunnels.
The most ancient people settled in this small area of the territory, the first remains of a Neanderthal were found here. In those distant times, all kinds of African animals existed in this place in abundance, but in addition to hunting and fishing, the ancient inhabitants of the peninsula were already engaged in agriculture. Territory of Gibraltar was wider, and the great flat valley on the east side of the rock made these places more comfortable to live in than now, when all this has disappeared under the water. Gibraltar was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Calpe. In the 8th century it was turned into a fortress by the Arabs, which was named Jabal al-Tariq (Mount Tariq). In 1309-33. and from 1462 to the beginning of the XVIII century. The fortress was occupied by the Spaniards. In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Gibraltar was captured by the British. By the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, it was assigned to Great Britain, which used it as a stronghold for colonial conquests in India, Africa, and the Near and Middle East. In May 1969 a new constitution was adopted Gibraltar, which consolidated British control over its possession. Gibraltar’s economy has many development constraints: small size, lack of natural resources, impossibility of agricultural development, small population – all lead to the fact that the country’s well-being is highly dependent on the import of food, consumer goods, building materials, construction equipment and fuel. In this regard, the economy of Gibraltar has relied on the service sector: financial services, company registration, tourism, ship repair and freight transport.
According to Softwareleverage.org, the population of Gibralatra is about 30,000 people and consists mainly of Gibraltarians, Moroccans, British and Hindus. The official language is English, but Spanish, Italian and Portuguese are also widely used.
Gibraltar is a self-governing territory dependent on the UK. Great Britain retained the decision on defense and international relations issues, however, issues related to corporate and tax law are the prerogative of local authorities – the elected Parliament. Under the Treaty of Rome, Gibraltar is part of the EU.
To enter the territory of Gibraltar, you must obtain a visa at the British Consulate in one of the cities Russia or the country from which you are going to travel.
You can pay in Gibraltar with both Spanish pesetas and British pounds sterling. The Gibraltarians have their own Gibraltar pound, but only paper, the coins are of English origin.
Among the tourist attractions of Gibraltar, the main place is occupied by its nature: caves; an abundance of palms, pines and cypresses; more than 600 kinds of flowers. The most visited cave is the cave of St. Michael – a real underground amphitheater with stalactites of bizarre shapes. In ancient times, the cave served as a shelter for residents from enemies and bad weather, and in more recent times – a military fortification. Inside Gibraltar ‘s main mountain there are many caves connected by tunnels, through which the Siege Tunnels (The Great Siege Tunnels) tour is conducted. From the northern part of the mountain you can see Spain and North Africa, the distance to which is only 25 km.
In the town of Apes Dan, on the top of Gibraltar, there is a colony of tailless monkeys. Here you can watch these animals and take a lot of entertaining photos. You can take the funicular up to the top. Apes Dan is a reserve where, in addition to monkeys, you can see more than 600 species of plants and watch migratory birds.
Gibraltar – this is an original fusion of cultures: Moroccan women in national clothes are quietly talking in the narrow streets, in Spanish emotional visitors to the Cathedral pass through the blue courtyard, which was once part of the mosque, and the policemen in helmets, mailboxes on the street corner and pubs resemble the old England. The main street, Main Street, runs along the foot of the cliff from north to south, and is for pedestrians only. You can slowly move along it, going into numerous shops, where most of the goods are English.
Tourists come to Gibraltar not only to admire the opposite coast of Africa from the top of the cliff, but also for shopping, since prices for all goods are much lower than in most European countries. Gibraltar is also one of the recognized centers of sailing – a modern yachting center has been created in its bay with all the infrastructure required for facilities of this level.